Understanding Neurodiversity - A Teacher's Complete Guide
Neurodiversity is a term used to describe the variety of ways in which the brain functions. It includes differences in neurological development such as autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, and more. Understanding neurodiversity is crucial for teachers, as it enables them to recognise and support the unique learning needs of their students. In this blog post, we will explore some key concepts that teachers should be aware of when it comes to neurodiversity.
Why is Understanding Neurodiversity So Important?
Neurodiversity has become an increasingly important topic in education in recent years. With an estimated 1 in 5 students in the United States having a learning or attention difficulties, it's essential for teachers to understand and accommodate the unique needs of these students. In fact, the number of students who receive special education services in the US has increased by 11% over the past decade, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. In the UK, as of January 2020, there were 1,388,290 pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in schools in England, which represents 14.9% of the total pupil population.
Moreover, there has been a growing recognition of the value of neurodiversity in recent years. Rather than seeing conditions such as autism or ADHD as deficits, many people now view them as variations of human brain wiring, with unique strengths and challenges. This perspective, known as the neurodiversity paradigm, emphasizes the importance of valuing and accommodating differences rather than trying to "fix" them.
As educators, it's crucial to understand the principles of the neurodiversity paradigm and apply them in the classroom. By recognising and embracing different learning styles and abilities, teachers can create a more inclusive and supportive learning environment. Additionally, by providing individualised support and accommodations, teachers can help students with neurodiverse conditions succeed academically and socially.
"If they don't learn the way that we teach, then we need to teach in the way they learn."
Embrace Different Learning Styles
Being able to embrace different learning styles is an essential aspect of understanding and accommodating the needs of students with neurodiverse conditions. Every student has a unique learning style, and some students require more individualised approaches to learning. Some students may be visual learners, while others may be auditory or kinesthetic learners. Visual learners learn best through pictures, diagrams, and other visual aids. Auditory learners learn best through listening, while kinesthetic learners learn best through hands-on activities. Children with ADHD, especially boys, are often kinesthetic learners, whereas autistic children are often visual learners.
Teachers need to identify each student's learning style and adapt their teaching methods accordingly. This involves presenting information in a variety of formats, such as through lectures, visual aids, group discussions, and hands-on activities. Teachers can also provide alternative materials, such as audiobooks or videos, to help students who struggle with reading or writing. In addition to accommodating different learning styles, it's also important to recognize that some students may have specific learning disabilities that require specialised support. For example, students with dyslexia may need access to audio versions of texts or extra time to complete reading and writing assignments.
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Foster a Positive, Inclusive Classroom
Fostering a positive and inclusive classroom environment is critical in supporting the learning and wellbeing of all students, especially those who are neurodiverse. A positive classroom environment is one in which students feel safe, valued, and respected, and where there is a sense of community and belonging.
One key aspect of creating a positive classroom environment is building positive relationships with students. This involves getting to know each student as an individual, taking an interest in their interests and hobbies, and showing empathy and understanding towards their challenges and struggles. Taking an interest in their interests can also aid with teacher, especially if you are teaching autistic students. Incorporating their special interests into lessons can improve their engagement and also lead to huge improvement in academic results. Teachers can also use positive reinforcement and praise to encourage positive behaviours and academic achievements, which can help boost students' confidence and self-esteem.
Another important element of a positive classroom environment is creating a sense of community and belonging. Teachers can foster a sense of community by encouraging teamwork and collaboration, promoting inclusivity and diversity, and celebrating students' cultural backgrounds and identities. This can help create a sense of belonging and connectedness among students, which is crucial for their social and emotional wellbeing. An easy way to do this is with your classroom décor - here are some of my favourites;
It's also important to create a physically and emotionally safe classroom environment. This involves establishing clear rules and expectations for behaviour, and ensuring that the classroom is free from physical hazards and distractions. To continue that community feel in your classroom, make your classroom rules in collaboration with your students. When you have input on something, you are far more likely to adhere to it - and it doesn't feel like you're simply being told what to do by 'some authority figure'. Write these rules up and present them visually in the classroom so that you and students can refer to them throughout the school year.
Teachers can also promote emotional safety by encouraging students to express their feelings and emotions in a safe and supportive way, and by modelling positive behaviours and attitudes.
Creating a positive classroom environment is not only important for students' emotional wellbeing, but it can also lead to improved academic outcomes. Studies have shown that students in positive classroom environments tend to have higher levels of academic achievement, engagement, and motivation.
Providing individualised support is a critical aspect of meeting the needs of students who are neurodiverse. Individualised support involves tailoring instruction and accommodations to meet the unique needs and learning styles of each student. This can help ensure that every student has the opportunity to succeed academically and reach their full potential.
One key way to provide individualised support is through differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction involves adapting teaching methods and materials to meet the varying needs and abilities of students. This can include providing different levels of complexity in assignments, allowing for flexibility in assignments, and offering different ways for students to demonstrate their learning. For example, students who are dyslexic may prefer to verbally record their answers rather than write them down.
Another important aspect of individualised support is providing accommodations and modifications. Accommodations are changes to the learning environment or materials that enable students to access the curriculum and participate in classroom activities. This can include things like preferential seating, extra time on assignments, and assistive technology. Modifications, on the other hand, involve changing the curriculum or assignments themselves to better meet the needs of individual students.
It's also important to involve students in the process of developing individualised support plans. This can include working with students and their families to identify areas of strength and challenge, and developing goals and strategies to support their learning. By involving students in the process, they can take ownership of their learning and feel more invested in their education.
Providing individualised support can be time-consuming and require additional resources, but it is essential in meeting the needs of students who are neurodiverse. By tailoring instruction and accommodations to meet the unique needs of each student, teachers can create a more inclusive and supportive learning environment that fosters academic success and personal growth for all students.
Be Mindful of Language
Using inclusive and respectful language is an important aspect of creating an inclusive and supportive classroom environment for students who are neurodiverse. The language that teachers use can have a significant impact on how students perceive themselves and their abilities, and can either reinforce or challenge negative stereotypes and stigmas.
One key aspect of being mindful of language is avoiding stigmatising or derogatory terms that can be hurtful to students who are neurodiverse. Obviously, this includes not using terms like "retard" or "stupid" but also referring to students in ways they prefer. Take autistic students for example. Many autistic people see their autism as a fundamental part of who they are, so it’s important to use positive language. And, if you are referring to a particular person or group, ask them how they would prefer to be described.
Another important aspect of being mindful of language is avoiding the use of ableist language that reinforces negative stereotypes about individuals with disabilities. This includes terms like "crazy" or "lame," which can be hurtful and perpetuate negative attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. Instead, teachers should use neutral language that does not stigmatise or exclude individuals with disabilities.
Teachers can also use positive and empowering language that reinforces students' strengths and abilities. This can include highlighting students' accomplishments and unique talents, and emphasizing the value and contributions of individuals with neurodiverse conditions. By using positive and empowering language, teachers can help build students' self-esteem and promote a sense of belonging and acceptance.
Collaborate with Parents and Specialists
Collaborating with parents is an essential aspect of supporting the academic and social-emotional growth of students with neurodiverse conditions. Parents can provide valuable insights into their child's strengths and challenges, and can work with teachers to develop individualised support plans that meet their child's unique needs.
One important way that teachers can collaborate with parents is through regular communication. This can include setting up regular meetings or check-ins to discuss students' progress and areas of concern. Teachers can also use various communication tools, such as home-school diaries or messaging apps, to keep parents informed about classroom activities and assignments.
Another key aspect of collaborating with parents is involving them in the development of individualized support plans. This can include working together to identify areas of strength and challenge, setting goals and objectives, and developing strategies and accommodations to support the child's learning. By involving parents in the process, teachers can ensure that they have a comprehensive understanding of the child's needs and can develop more effective support plans.
Teachers can also collaborate with parents by providing resources and support. This can include sharing information about community resources, such as support groups or therapy services, that can help families navigate the challenges of raising a child with neurodiverse conditions. Teachers can also provide information and training to parents on specific strategies and accommodations that can be used at home to support their child's learning and development.
All educators should educate themselves about neurodiversity to better understand and support the diverse learning needs of their students. By learning about different neurodiverse conditions, such as autism, ADHD, and anxiety, teachers can gain insights into their students' strengths and challenges, and try to understand what it is like to live with their neurodiversity. By understanding what your students experience, you can develop more effective strategies and accommodations to support their learning.
Educating oneself about neurodiversity also helps to challenge negative stereotypes and stigmas, and promotes a more inclusive and accepting classroom environment. Overall, by becoming more knowledgeable about neurodiversity, teachers can enhance their ability to create a supportive and effective learning environment for all of their students.
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